Rapidshare Tweaks

Rapidshare traces the users IP address to limit each user to a certain amount of downloading per day. To get around this, you need to show the rapidshare server a different IP address. Here are some methods for doing this:

1. Short-Out the JavaScript:
1. Goto the page you want to download
2. Select FREE button
3. In the address bar put the following: javascript:alert(c=0)
4. Click OK
5. Click OK to the pop-up box
6. Enter the captcha
7. Download Your File

2. Request a new IP address from your ISP server.

Here's how to do it in windows:
1. Click Start
2. Click run
3. In the run box type cmd.exe and click OK
4. When the command prompt opens type the following. ENTER after each new line.
ipconfig /flushdns
ipconfig /release
ipconfig /renew
5. Erase your cookies in whatever browser you are using.
6. Try the rapidshare download again.

Frequently you will be assigned a new IP address when this happens. Sometime you will, sometimes you will not. If you are on a fixed IP address, this method will not work. To be honest, I do not know how to do this in linux/unix/etc. If this works for you, you may want to save the above commands into a batch file, and just run it when you need it.

3. Use a proxy with SwitchProxy and Firefox:

1. Download and install Firefox if you have not already
2. Download and install SwitchProxy
3. Google for free proxies
4. When you hit your download limit, clean your cookies and change your proxy

4. Use an anonymous service:

Running your system through the tor network should in theory work; however, it is difficult to use and setup. Plus, you allow others to run their evil deeds through your system as well by using this system. Anonymizer 2005 is inexpensive, easy to use, but not free. Other pay services would likely work as well.

5. You can use a bookmarklet to stop your wait times:

1. Open IE
2. Right Click On This Link
3. Select Add to Favorites
4. Select Yes to the warning that the bookmark may be unsafe.
5. Name it "RapidShare No Wait"
6. Click on the Links folder (if you want to display it in your IE toolbar)
7. Click OK
8. You may need to close and reopen IE to see it
9. Goto rapidshare and click the bookmarklet when you are forced to wait

Restore Previously Open Folders After Shutdown

If you need to access lot of folders on your home computer or on the network regularly, then you can set them re-open automatically, when you will login, shutdown or restart your computer next time. There is no need to open regularly used folders manually, just configure the simple sitting, your computer will automatically reload all the previously opened windows.
By default windows XP disables this option to reload automatically all the previously opened windows, when you login on, shutdown or restart your computer.

Follow the given steps to configure your computer to reload previously opened folders automatically after shutdown

To edit this feature, you will need to be logged into your computer with administrative rights.
1. First click on Start button then go to Control Panel.

2. Open the “Appearance and Themes” option in control panel then click on Folder Options.
A small windows dialog box will appear with the title “Folder options”, click on View tab.

3. Under the Advanced setting section, scroll down to bottom and click the “Restore previous folder windows at logon” option and then click Ok button to save sitting.

4. Now when you log off, restart or shutdown, your computer will automatically open the previously opened folders from the same location as before.

obscure Word tricks that can expedite common chores

Move table rows up or down

This tip is probably most useful when you're working in a table, although you can use it to reorder paragraphs outside a table, too. Let's say you decide you want the third row of a table to be the top row. Just click within the third row, hold down [Alt][Shift] and press the up arrow key twice. Each time you press the arrow key, Word will move the row up one. You can select multiple rows to move them as a block, and you can use the down arrow key if you want to move text down instead of up.
Using this shortcut gets a little tricky if you're moving big pieces of text outside a table. It's easy to lose track of what's being relocated where, and you might find it easier to take a standard cut-and-paste approach in those situations. But when the text is small and manageable, the shortcut is fairly handy. For example, if you need to move an item up or down within a bulleted or numbered list, you can just click in the item's paragraph and use the [Alt][Shift] and arrow key combo to move the item to the desired spot.
Go back to your last editing location when you open a document

One of the confounding things about Word is that when you reopen a document you've been working on, it puts you back at the top of the document. Unlike Excel, which takes you to the spot where you left off last time, Word's short-term memory always wants to start you off at the beginning again. You can work around this if you press [Shift][F5] as soon as the document opens. [Shift][F5] is the Go Back shortcut, which cycles you between your four most recent edits during a Word session. But if you can remember to hit it immediately after opening a document, Word will jump to the last thing you changed before saving and closing that doc.
Save changes to all open documents at one time

This simple technique comes in handy when you're working in multiple documents and want to make sure you've saved your changes to all of them. I actually use it most often when I've made a change to a template and want a quick way to save that change on the fly (before I've had a chance to forget I made a change I want to keep). All you have to do is press the [Shift] key and pull down the File menu. Word will add the Save All command to the menu, above the Save As command. Just choose Save All and Word will prompt you to save each document (or template) that has any unsaved changes. This is more efficient than having to navigate to each document individually and click Save.

Make a vertical text selection

Here's a trick that seldom appears on the shortcut lists. Most of the time, we select text horizontally—a word, a series of words, a paragraph--from left to right or vice versa. But occasionally, the selection has to be vertical. For instance, suppose you wanted to delete the leading characters.
To make a vertical selection, hold down [Alt] as you drag down through the text you want to highlight. Hit [Delete] and bam, they're gone.
Although we selected text at the beginning of the lines in this example, you can make vertical selections anywhere on the page.

Quickly add a series of numbers

There are plenty of tools you can rely on to perform sophisticated or complex calculations. But Word offers a command that can be handy when you just need to sum a few numbers without dragging out another application. The command is Tools Calculate, and although it doesn't appear on any toolbars, it's easy to add.

1. Choose Tools Customize (or double-click an empty spot on any toolbar) to open the Customize dialog box.
2. Click the Commands tab and choose All Commands from the Categories list box
3. Click in the Commands list box and scroll down to select ToolsCalculate
4. Drag the ToolsCalculate item to the toolbar where you want it to appear.
5. Click Close to close the Customize dialog box

Once you have access to the Calculate command, here's how you use it. Simply highlight a series of numbers (either horizontally or vertically) and click your Tools Calculate button. Word will display the sum in the status bar, It will also place that sum on the clipboard, so if you need to paste it into a document, just click in the desired spot and press [Ctrl]V or click Paste.
It's important to note that the Calculate command works differently from the AutoSum button on the Tables and Borders toolbar. To use AutoSum, you have to be in an empty cell and then click the button to insert a formula that will add the numbers in the cells above or to the left of the current cell. It's a sort of light-duty version of Excel's =Sum() function. By contrast, the Calculate command gives you a quick total without requiring you to make a place for the results in your document.

Water-Proof Hanky | Physics Tricks

A great excuse to threaten to pour water over your audience – but with a surprise twist thanks to physics.


• large glass
• ashtray or similar
• water
• handkerchief


1. Push the centre of the handkerchief into the glass, so that the edges are hanging over the outside of the rim of the glass.

2. Pour water into the glass, through the loose handkerchief. Make sure that your audience can see the water easily passing through the handkerchief into the glass. Keep pouring the water until the glass is roughly half full.

3. Pull the corners of the handkerchief so that the material is taut over the top of the glass. Hold the glass and handkerchief so that the material stays tightly stretched over the opening. For younger audiences you may like to say some 'magic words' that make the hanky water proof.

4. Place the ashtray on the top of the glass and tip it all upside down, being careful to keep the handkerchief pulled tight.

5. Choose a likely suspect from your audience to threaten with a drenching! Hold the upside-down glass and ashtray above their head, making sure that the glass is vertical and the handkerchief is tight. Remove the ashtray and voila! – nothing happens! The water stays inside the glass.

How does it work?

This demonstration is based on surface tension and air pressure. When the handkerchief is loose, the water can pour through the gaps in the fabric. However, when the handkerchief is pulled tight, the water molecules can form a single surface or membrane across the handkerchief due to a property called surface tension. The air surrounding us is exerting a force in all directions - air pressure. When the membrane is formed on the surface of the handkerchief, it provides a uniform surface for the air pressure to act upon. The force of the surrounding air acting upon this membrane is sufficient to overcome gravity, and so the water stays in the glass.

Tips for Success

Don't try to substitute a paper tissue for the handkerchief as it won't work! If the glass isn't held vertically, some water may dribble out where the membrane attaches to the edge of the glass.

Serving Suggestions

This trick will work in almost any environment and with any age group.

Did You Know?

Galileo was among the earliest to demonstrate the existence of surface tension on water by showing that an iron needle can be floated lengthways on water, but not on it’s point.

Alka-Seltzer Rocket | Physics Tricks

An oldie but a goodie – guaranteed to impress audiences of all ages. Turn simple familiar household ingredients into an awesome rocket!


• empty film cannister
• Alka-Seltzer tablet
• water


1. Place the Alka-Seltzer tablet in the film cannister.
2. Add ~1cm of water.
3. Fit the lid on the cannister, making sure the seal is tight.
4. Turn the cannister upside-down and place it on a flat surface. Stand back!

How does it work?

When water is added to the Alka-Seltzer tablet, bubbles of carbon dioxide gas are given off. When the lid is fitted tightly to the cannister this gas is contained within an enclosed space. As more gas is given off the pressure inside the cannister rises until there is enough force to overcome the seal of the lid. The built up pressure exerts enough force to shoot the cannister into the air, forming the rocket.

Tips for Success

Make sure the film cannister lid is tightly fitting or you will only get a disappointing 'fizz'. You should also clean the cannister lip and lid between demonstrations so that no pieces of Alka-Seltzer get stuck between them, ruining the seal.

Serving Suggestions

This is a good demonstration for attracting people from far away as they can see and hear the rocket in action. It can be fairly messy so is either most suited to outside environments OR locations that are easily cleaned! It works with audiences of all ages.

Did You Know?

The Chinese began building chemically powered rockets as long ago as the 1150’s. One of the great pioneers of modern rocketry, N. I. Kibaltchich was executed in 1881 after manufacturing the bomb that was used to assassinate Tsar Alexander II.

Tips and Tricks for students with disabilities

The information is for students with disabilities. The contents include software recommendations, JAWs instruction, Blackboard tips and disability resources.

Recommended Applications

Zoomtext (Magnifier) and Read & Write Gold (Screen reader)
The EKU learning community has access to two, specialized pieces of assistive technology; Zoomtext (for the visually impaired), and Read&Write Gold (for LD, ADHD and other cognitive impaired individuals) in the Richmond campus student computer labs in the SSB and the Library Lab ( behind Java City). All individuals are welcome to learn how to use this special software. If interested in a demo, call the Disabilities Office to set up an appointment with a technology specialist.
Accessibility of various software programs
Where to find the new commands in Office 2007
Online Search Engine
‘Google Accessible Web Search for the Visually Impaired’ returns a list of websites with priority given to the most accessible.
Best online blogger and blog aggregator for users with low vision or blind users.
Juice podcast aggregator for .mp3 and similar audio files
Best podcast aggregator for users with low vision or blind users.
Adobe Reader for PDFs
Flash and Shockwave
Microsoft Readers for PowerPoint, Word, Excel, etc
Quicktime for .mov files
Real Player for audio and video
Windows Media Player for audio or video

Adobe Acrobat 8

Use the Optical Character Recognition command to change a scanned document (image) into actual text.
Document > OCR Text Recognition > Recognize text using OCR
Shortcut = Alt + DCR
Magnifies one small portion of the page.
Tools > Select & Zoom > Loupe Tool
Shortcut = Alt + T Z L
Magnifies the page view in the browser window.
View > Zoom > Zoom to
Shortcut = Alt + V Z, Enter, arrow keys to choose magnification
Read Out Loud
Read a document out loud if the document has true text, or can be changed to a document with text using OCR
View > Read Out Loud
Shortcut = Shift + Control + V

MS Operating System Tips

Toggle to high contrast theme in Windows with left alt + left shift + print screen, enter, or alt-s for settings, alt-s, alt-y, and arrow down for contrast scheme selections.
Users can also start Accessibility programs before logging on to the computer on by pressing the Windows logo key+ U at the logon screen.
Once logged in, the Windows logo key will open the Start Menu. Use arrow keys and the tab key to navigate through the options.
Windows includes the following programs to enhance accessibility:
Magnifier enlarges a portion of the screen for easier viewing.
Narrator uses text-to-speech technology to read the contents of the screen aloud. This is useful for people who are blind or are vision impaired.
On-Screen Keyboard provides users with limited mobility the ability to type on-screen using a pointing device.
All of these tools can be activated by using the Utility Manager. (Windows logo key + U). Utility Manager enables users to check an Accessibility program's status and start or stop an Accessibility program. Users with administrator-level access can designate to have the program start when Utility Manager starts.
Suggestions for Deaf or hard-of-hearing users
Turn on ShowSounds or SoundSentry for visual information in place of audio.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, Sound tab
Suggestions for blind or low vision users
Turn on high contrast. (left alt + left shift + print screen, enter)
Turn on Togglekeys, which are sounds for caps, num, or scroll locks. (Press the NUM lock for five seconds)
Change the screen resolution
Increase the size of objects and text on your screen.
Use the Magnifier to zoom into any portion of your interface. (control key + esc, press R, type magnify, and then enter)
Use the Narrator to read window screens. (control key + esc, press R, type narrator, and then enter)
Suggestions for mobility impaired users
MouseKeys - for people who have difficulty using a mouse. MouseKeys allows you to use the numeric keypad to control the mouse pointer.
Press left alt + left shift + NUM Lock
Serial Keys - for people who have difficulty using the computer's standard keyboard or mouse. Serial Keys provides support so that alternative input devices, such as single switch or puff and sip devices, can be plugged into the computer's serial port.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, General tab
FilterKeys - a keyboard feature that instructs the keyboard to ignore brief or repeated keystrokes. Using FilterKeys, you can also slow the rate at which a key repeats when you hold it down.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, Keyboard tab
Shortcut = Hold down right shift key for eight seconds to turn on.
StickyKeys - designed for people who have difficulty holding down two or more keys simultaneously. When a shortcut requires a key combination, such as CTRL+P, StickyKeys will enable you to press a modifier key (CTRL, ALT, or SHIFT), or the Windows logo key, and have it remain active until another key is pressed.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, Keyboard tab
Shortcut = Turn on by pressing the shift key five times.

13 Quick Tips To Search Google Like An Expert

Note: many of these tips work on all search engines, but if they don’t you’ll have to go back to Google.

1. Explicit Phrase: Let’s say you are looking for content about internet marketing. Instead of just typing internet marketing into the Google search box, you will likely be better off searching explicitly for the phrase. To do this, simply enclose the search phrase within double quotes. Example: “internet marketing”

2. Exclude Words: Let’s say you want to search for content about internet marketing, but you want to exclude any results that contain the term advertising. To do this, simply use the “-“ sign in front of the word you want to exclude. Example Search: internet marketing –advertising

3. Site Specific Search: Often, you want to search a specific website for content that matches a certain phrase. Even if the site doesn’t support a built-in search feature, you can use Google to search the site for your term. Simply use the “site:somesite.com” modifier. Example: “internet marketing” site:www.smallbusinesshub.com

4. Similar Words and Synonyms: Let’s say you are want to include a word in your search, but want to include results that contain similar words or synonyms. To do this, use the “~” in front of the word. Example: “internet marketing” ~professional

5. Specific Document Types: If you’re looking to find results that are of a specific type, you can use the modifier “filetype:”. For example, you might want to find only PowerPoint presentations related to internet marketing. Example: “internet marketing” filetype:ppt

6. This OR That: By default, when you do a search, Google will include all the terms specified in the search. If you are looking for any one of one or more terms to match, then you can use the OR operator. (Note: The OR has to be capitalized). Example: internet marketing OR advertising

7. Phone Listing: Let’s say someone calls you on your mobile number and you don’t know how it is. If all you have is a phone number, you can look it up on Google using the phonebook feature. Example: phonebook:617-555-1212

8. Area Code Lookup: If all you need to do is to look-up the area code for a phone number, just enter the 3-digit area code and Google will tell you where it’s from. Example: 617

9. Addresses : Type in any address into Google, including the city and state and Google will provide a map of the area, as well as the ability to get directions to the location. Example: 880 Hermann Rd, North Brunswick, NJ

10 Numeric Ranges: This is a rarely used, but highly useful tip. Let’s say you want to find results that contain any of a range of numbers. You can do this by using the X..Y modifier (in case this is hard to read, what’s between the X and Y are two periods. This type of search is useful for years (as shown below), prices or anywhere where you want to provide a series of numbers. Example: president 1940..1950

11. Stock (Ticker Symbol): Just enter a valid ticker symbol as your search term and Google will give you the current financials and a quick thumb-nail chart for the stock. Example: GOOG

12. Calculator: The next time you need to do a quick calculation, instead of bringing up the Calculator applet, you can just type your expression in to Google. Example: 48512 * 1.02

13. Word Definitions: If you need to quickly look up the definition of a word or phrase, simply use the “define:” command. Example: define:plethora

7 proven methods to trick Google

These are our suggested methods to get to the top of Google, Altavista and other Search Engines:

1. Optimize your websites
2. The Shotgun Approach: use a lot of keywords
3. Use Google optimized pages in addition to your regular website
4. Make gateway pages that do not look like gateway pages
5. Use gateway domains to push back your competence
6. Use Viral Marketing to build PageRank and obtain thousands of incoming links
7. Manually submit your important pages to the best indexes, for fast, valuable, free incoming links

1. Optimize your websites for maximal Search Engine traffic

Site promotion is a wide field with many different tools: online advertising, direct mail, SE (search engine) optimizing and positioning, link-building and several others. All those methods are different. Some are faster and short-lived, like online advertising or mailing. And some are slower but long-lasting, such as search engine positioning.

Over 95% of Web users find what they are looking for by visiting search engines. Even a few good positions on even one or two important keywords or phrases can drive thousands or hundreds of thousands of quality visitor traffic to a Web site per day.

Research has shown that people hardly ever go past the top 30 search results for any one search. The top 10 results receive 78% more traffic than those in position 11 to 30 do. The top 30 results get over 90% of the search traffic. The search engines are mostly over-flowed. They have too many pages in their indices and they do not do a very good job of giving the users what they are looking for. Often, a good Web site may be ranked low by a search engine, and a very bad Web site in the same subject area ranked high! That is why you need a Search Engine Optimizer (SEO), either a human expert or a software package. Most companies that position websites in the search engines act by optimizing the existing website. Look under "search engine optimization", or "SEO" under Google and you will find many companies. There are some usually quite expensive and their methods are full of technicalities. You definitely need to know some facts before dealing with any of them.

The most important factor for website positioning is that Google ranks pages according to relevance and PageRank. Relevance is related to keyword density, calculated as the ratio between keyword number and total word number in a page and domain. Optimal keyword density is probably between 3 and 5%. PageRank is a measure of link popularity as read in Google navigation bar. Link popularity is the number of popular pages in the whole WWW that link to a certain page.

Notice that optimizing the website has its limits. There are so many pages that can be optimized for so many keywords. Also, since dynamic pages are difficult to index, Google does not like Javascript code, .asp, .php or other modern page types. Thus, optimization is an enemy of good design.

2. The Shotgun Approach: Use the maximal amount of keywords that can possibly describe your site.

There are many ways to arrive to any website thru the SEs. If your server logs the requests, you will be surprised to know the strange questions people ask. Instead of searching for "flowers", they write "best way to cheer up girls", or "standard woman gift", or "cheap solution for a conflict". If you sell flowers, use all of those keywords for better results. Besides, positioning your flower web shop in front of 45 million competitors is harder than competing with only 300,000.

Why not to use a shotgun instead of a rifle? We do not concentrate our effort in the top, highly competitive keywords. Every keyword or keyword phrase we can think of, we use. We have enough disk space for them all. Our imagination is wild. Hosting is cheap enough. We then use software to make enough content, SE optimized content pages that accommodate our army of keywords.
Our "Shotgun" approach involves selecting hundreds of relevant keywords for each promoted website.

There are several keyword research methods. Some suggestions:

• use your keyword in other languages
• use synonyms and plurals
• use the keywords more frequently demanded by the users (Overture and Google have that information)
• use the brand name of your competitor (not completely legal, but it works)
• copy the keywords from the pages that are well ranked in SEs. Our GGG software has an automated method of extracting them ("Keyword Thief").
• purchase frequent keyword lists
• when the site is alive and receives visits, a good statistics package can reveal the keywords that people use to find it on the search engines. It is good to reinforce their presence in the site.
• use many keyword phrases, not just keywords.
• add the word "free" to your keywords. It makes miracles.

Few people will use the same logic as you, the keyword selector. Only a "shotgun" campaign will cover most possibilities.

Notice that not all keywords have similar relevance. We make keyword families, with 1st and 2nd level keywords, thematically arranged. GGG can manage that.

3. Use Google-optimized pages in addition to your regular website

Most websites do not have enough pages to optimize for any possible keyword. Thus, many keywords must be left out. The alternative is to create new pages to accommodate the extra keywords.

According to most experts, pages that rank well in Google share these features:
• 3% to 5% keyword density in the whole page, 25% in the Title.
• use of keywords in the domain name, in the title, in the H1 and H2 headings, in the page filenames, in the graphics filenames, in the metatags, in the image ALT tags, in the link anchor text
• use of keywords in the first words of a page
• use of keywords inside theme-related content, not randomly inside unrelated text
• use of keywords related to categories in the DMOZ index (dmoz.org)
• use many cross-linked pages optimized for related keywords

There is very little chance that your current website follows all these rules. Most likely you need special, doorway pages, in order to describe your website AND have high relevance for each of your keywords. Each page is optimized for a single keyword, pointing to the main page in the target website.

Doorway pages, which are designed for top SE placement, are not a novelty. The fact that they are also called gateway pages, pointer pages, anchor pages, entry pages, landing, bridge, crawler, jump or supplemental pages reveals their age and popularity...

Several systems exist for automatically generating these Gateways. However, they are not easily found while searching: either SEs easily spot them and exclude them from their listings, or they lack the necessary elements for being effective.

To avoid repetitive pages we start obtaining enough content, either taking it from the main website or by making standard changes in the existing text. We then build a database of as many keyword phrases as we can find, content text, file names and other data. The last step is page generation, following the accepted rules for good positioning. We make and publish at least one page per keyword.

4. Make gateway pages that do not look like gateway pages

When webmasters discovered the rules of Google positioning, they started making pages following those rules. Hundreds, thousands, even millions of them. The search results were soon overcrowded by those gateway pages, and Google took action: they acted against abusive gateway pages, forbidding them. That is why gateway pages are a bad word among mainstream website promoters.

Some webmasters copied hundreds of times the keyword inside a page, making the text the same color as the background, to avoid annoying the reader. This simple trick was rapidly detected and forbidden by Google.

In the same vein, many webmasters produced pages with a thousand links to the target page, in order to build internal link popularity or PageRank. For that reason, Google now does not like pages with more than 100 links.

Abusive gateway pages are currently defined as "many pages that have little useful information, have repetitive keyword-stuffed text, are pointing to the same target page, are mostly orphan (no incoming links), reside mostly in the same directory".

Ok, someone will claim: "You can not make hand-made pages by software. It is like the antique-maker paradox: either they are antiques, or they are made...". That is true. While choosing a gateway generator tool, look for one that does not leave any trace in its pages. Make them look unique, information rich, useful and nice looking.

Sites without doorway pages can be "politically correct", but have no presence in the SEs.

Only a few of the gateway generators in the market are prepared to bring traffic from Google, without triggering any alarm.

GGG (www.GatewayGenerator.com) allows the user to include a lot of content and relevant keywords, to spread pages across several domains or subdomains, to link to different target pages, and not to exceed a reasonable page number limit. This way, the pages can be called informational and there is no SE abuse.

GGG uses 2 levels of keywords. The 2nd level keywords or subkeywords are "nested" in the 1st level keywords, building sub-themes within the main theme. This is simple math. If you have a limit of 100 links per page, and you want more than 100 pages, they cannot be completely interlinked. With 2 levels of keywords you can have 10,000 total keywords: 100 main keywords, with 100 subkeywords each.

We call "indirectly interlinked" to pages that are interlinked with a minimal amount of links. Thus, from any page to another you might need more than one link. This results in a low total link count, which does not abuse the SE. Webmasters that use many keywords and many pages with "direct interlinking" risk being banned from Google. Another reason to avoid many links, is the fact that SE allocate a limited time, bandwidth and number of links to each site, depending on PageRank. If you offer too many links to the SE spider, some of them are not followed. Indirect interlinking is another unique feature of GGG.

"Random" pages are an important, additional component in this strategy. We must admit that nobody knows how to make perfect top-ranking web pages, except for the SE algorithm designers themselves. Thus, it is good to make lots of pages with randomly chosen parameters: keyword selection, density and order, page length, image selection, metatag wording and others. Upload them all, submit them to the SEs by means of a hallway or sitemap page, and wait until the next Google dance. Quantity might beat quality.

It usually works quite well. But there is one problem remaining: the pages that get to the top ranking are usually ugly and only indirectly point to the target website. They are not keyword-stuffed, but they still have more keywords and links than a normal page, and they would not resist an abuse denounce and a review by a human Google reviewer. The solution is simple: after we promptly identify the pages that came to the top, we make a little retouching: colors, logo, structure, content. We leave title, metatags and a few other critical items intact: colors, logo, structure, content. Like in most favoured positions in life, it seems that staying in the SE top is easier than arriving there...

5. Use gateway domains to push back your competence

In the same way that gateway pages capture visits from Google, gateway domains get always well positioned. If you look under any popular keyword, you will see those keywords in the domain name. Also, the domain names with pure keywords in them are scarce and valuable. For that reason we registered GatewayGenerator.com and DoorwayGenerator.com.ar. The additional advantage of gateway domains is the fact that each domain is allowed only 2 entries in SE´s result pages (SERP). Thus, even if you have a SE saturation (number of pages of a given domain that are indexed in the SE) of say 100, you will have only 2 of them in the results.

More domains let you have more places in the first SERPs, pushing your competence back in the results.

GGG has a unique feature that lets you host gateway pages across as many domains as you have. They are all interlinked and point to the target site. This also helps avoid the abuse label.

6. Use Viral Marketing to build PageRank and obtain thousands of incoming links

Viral marketing is a powerful technique that allows fast, efficient dispersal of an idea around the marketplace.

When people use the Freeware version of GGG, discrete links to our sites are included in the generated pages. This helps our sales because of direct clicks, and also improves our ranking in Google, Altavista and other search engines.You can use a branded Freeware GGG to include your own brand and link in the pages generated by your customers or site visitors.

For $99 we will compile a Freeware version for you to offer to your visitors or clients. This version will create Gateway pages with a link to your promoted site. Link popularity is a key factor in attaining high search engine ranking. This way, all the final users will indirectly generate link popularity for your sites. It will be their pages, their servers, they page registration and other promotion efforts, all working for you day and night. And they will be grateful to you because of the superb free tool you gave them...

If you also want to collect a commission from every sale that we make with your branded version of GGG, you just need to sign up in the Affiliate Program:
Earn 30% commissions selling GGG in your website

This affiliate program is free to join, and it is open to every webmaster, even if they did not purchase any product from us.

You can even use this e-book, with links to your website, as a Viral Marketing tool. As you probably know, people like ebooks. The content/advertising rate is higher than in regular pages. They spread easily thru its own channels. Ask for a quote.

7. Manually submit your important pages to the best indexes

To be well ranked in Google, Altavista and other indexes that use a similar ranking algorithm you need many good incoming links. The fastest and cheaper way to get them is to submit to other indexes.

Good indexes only accept manual submissions. Only human operators can understand the rules of each index and add quality content. Of course, only humans are receptive to advertising, the force behind most indexes. For that reason, many sites ask for proof of humanity (like Altavista´s time-consuming quiz).

Many softwares perform automatic SE submission, but most of the sites that accept free automatic submissions are worthless. None of them has PageRank over 2. Their only purpose is to collect your email to spam you forever.

Being listed in other indexes helps your Google ranking, unless those sites are not indexed or they are labeled as "link farms" (PageRank 0). Considering the effort that requires to get a listing in any site, reserve your time for those with a decent (5+) PageRank.

Some good indexes demand a reciprocal link or banner, before listing you. This can be worth the effort, but it also time-consuming and annoying.

Finally, some very good indexes like Yahoo demand significant payment (U$D300).

There are thousands of good indexes in the web, but not all of them match your needs. For instance, some require link exchange, some are restricted to English sites and some are subject or geographically limited. To help list the indexes that are useful to submit any given site, we created a matching system with over 350 PageRank 5+ indexes. It is located at www.FoundFirst.com . There is a free service to try the system, and a paid one.

Handy calculations

This is an excellent web site that provides handy calculations for almost all scientific and engineering disciplines.

Petroleum Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Civil Engineering
Basic cashflow analysis
Project selection/Capital allocation by Ranking method
Measurement Units
Units Conversion Calculators
Units Conversion factors
Surge & Swab pressures
Bit Hydraulics Optimization
Cuttings Slip Velocity
Equivalent Circulation Density Of Mud
Basic solids analysis
Drilling rate d-Exponent
Directional survey
Well Schematic I - Single vertical completion
Well Schematic II - Dual vertical completion
Well Schematic III - Horizontal single completion
Casing Data Browser
Reservoir I
Material Balance Equation I: SolutionGas-GasCap Drive
Material Balance Equation II: SolutionGas with GasCap Withdrawal/Injection
Pressure Buildup Analysis - Horner Plot (Oilwell)
Inflow Performance Relationships For solution-gas drive Vertical wells
Inflow Performance Relationships For solution-gas drive Slanted wells
Inflow Performance Relationships For solution-gas drive Horizontal wells
Horizontal well performance (oil)
Water coning in a vertical well
Combined gas & water coning in a vertical well
Water breakthrough time in a vertical well
Reservoir II - Gas
Original Gas In Place: Volumetric reservoir - p/z method
Original Gas In Place: Abnormally Pressured gas reservoir
Coalbed Methane: Original Gas In Place by P/Z* method
Coalbed Methane: Reservoir performance prediction
Gaswell deliverability - Backpressure AOF test
Horizontal well performance (gas)
Gas Properties - I: Z, ì, Bg and Sg for a given Composition
Gas Properties - II: Z, ì, Bg for a given Specific gravity
Real gas pseudo-pressure
Gas coning in a vertical well
Decline Curve Analysis
Flow through chokes (1-phase)
Flow through chokes (2-phase)
Gaswell flow in Vertical Tubing
Gas flow in Horizontal Pipeline
Gas flow in Inclined Pipeline
API Gravity Correction to 60°F
Gas well load-up: Critical Rate
Tubing Data Browser
Skin Factors In Perforated Vertical Wells
Skin Factors In Perforated Horizontal Wells
Productivity Ratio Of Perforated Horizontal Wells
Conventional well log analysis I
Conventional well log analysis II
Basic cashflow analysis
Comprehensive cashflow analysis (oilfield)
Comprehensive cashflow analysis (gasfield)
'Optimum' number of Oilfield development wells
Project selection/Capital allocation by Ranking method
Units Conversion Calculators
Units Conversion factors
World Oil & Gas Production & Reserves - Country by country Data
Mechanical Engineering Calculators
Civil Engineering Calculators
Chemical Engineering Calculators
Physical Properties
Physical properties of Water
Liquid-phase Diffusion coefficients
Gas Z-factor, Viscosity & Specific Gravity for a given Composition
Gas Z-factor & Viscosity for a given Specific gravity
API gravity Correction To 60°F
Fluid Flow
Reynolds Number and Friction Factors
Vapor-Liquid 2-Phase Vertical downflow
Flow Through Packed Bed
Liquid Pipe flow: Pressure Drop calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Length calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Flow Rate calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Diameter calculation
Gas flow in Horizontal Pipeline
Gas flow in Inclined Pipeline
Heat Transfer
Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger: Corrected LMTD
Air-cooled Heat Exchanger Design
Equipment Sizing
Sizing Of Liquid-Vapor Separators
Partial Volumes Of Tanks
Orifice Sizing for fluid flow
Gas Compressor performance
Mass Transfer
Multicomponent Equilibrium Flash Calculations
Packed-Tower Sizing
Basic cashflow analysis
Project selection/Capital allocation by Ranking method
Measurement Units
Units Conversion Calculators
Units Conversion factors
Other Calculators
Petroleum Engineering Calculators
Chemistry Calculators
Mechanical Engineering Calculators
Civil Engineering Calculators
Machine Mechanics
Rolling Wheel
Motion of Crank-Slider Mechanism
Buckling of Helical Spring
Bolt & Nut Bolted Joint: Stiffnesses of components
Cap Screw Bolted Joint: Stiffnesses of components
Bolted Joint: Static and Dynamic loading
Butt Weld under axial and transverse loading
Fillet Weld under Torsional loading
Fillet Weld under Bending loading
Material Stresses
Pressure loading: Thin-walled vessels (Sphere & Cylinder)
Pressure loading: Thick-walled Cylinder
Stresses due to Interference (press or shrink) fit
Contact stresses: Sphere on a sphere
Contact stresses: Sphere on a Flat surface
Contact stresses: Cylinder on a cylinder
Contact stresses: Cylinder on a Flat surface
Rotational loading: Thin disk
2D Stresses & Mohr's Circle
3D Stresses & Mohr's Circles
Static Failure analysis: Ductile material
Static Failure analysis: Brittle material
Buckling of Column with Rectangular cross-section
Buckling of Column with Circular cross-section
Fatigue & dynamic Failure analysis
Stress Concentration factors: Two U-Notches in a Rectangular member
Stress Concentration factors: Circular Hole in a Rectangular member
Stress Concentration factors: U-Notch in a Circular shaft
Stress Concentration factors: Square Shoulder with Fillet in a Circular shaft
Stress Concentration factors: Radial Hole in hollow or solid Circular shaft
Fluid Flow
Reynolds Number and Friction Factors
Liquid Pipe flow: Pressure Drop calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Length calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Flow Rate calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Diameter calculation
Gas Z-factor, Viscosity & Specific Gravity for a given Composition
Gas Z-factor & Viscosity for a given Specific gravity
Gas flow in Horizontal Pipeline
Gas flow in Inclined Pipeline
Forces on a pipe bend
Heat Transfer

A comprehensive list of some online tutorials to learn using computers and Windows XP

All about Windows7

What is Windows 7?

The upcoming Windows desktop operating system following Windows Vista. It is currently in development at Microsoft.

When will Windows 7 ship?

Originally, a Microsoft VP confirmed that Windows 7 is expected to be released in January 2010, which puts it in the three-year period after the general availability of Windows Vista (which took place in January 2007.) However, more recent news claim to have Windows 7 released 6 months earlier, in June 3, 2009.

Why the name 'Windows 7'?

If the history of naming products at Microsoft has thought us anything, it's that until very soon before the release of the product, we will be dealing with a code-name. This means that Windows 7 is not the final name of the product. The reason behind the name is that Windows Vista is using NT Kernel version 6, and Windows 7 will presumably be labeled with NT Kernel version 7.

Is Windows 7 the same as Windows Vienna?

Yes; Windows 7 was previously named Windows Vienna (hence the name of this website) and before that, Windows Blackcomb. They are the same operating systems only with different names.

Is Windows 7 a major operating system release?

Since "major" is a relative term, and it can mean different things to different people, there is no straight answer to this one. Windows 7 will not break all compatibility with previous applications and hardware supported by Windows Vista for the sake of starting from scratch, despite original reports that claimed so. All the security hardening introduced in Vista will be found in Windows 7. Windows Vista serves as a foundation for upcoming Windows operating systems (such as Windows 7 and the already released Windows Server 2008.)

Are there any distinguished features of Windows 7?

While Microsoft is being careful at releasing details on the features of Windows 7, the released videos and screenshots show an improved Windows Explorer, WinFS storage technology (but under a different name), improved search functions (for the local system, networks and the Internet) and a revamped GUI designed by Julie Larson-Green and other members of the team responsible for the Office 2007 ribbon interface.

Will Windows 7 be released exclusively for 64-bit processors?

No, but it will be the last one to ship for 32-bit processors.

How many people are working on Windows 7?

According to Microsoft, over 2000 developers and 500 managers.

World's biggest scientific experiment LHC (Finding the Earth)

View from the surface during lowering of the first ATLAS small wheel into the tunnel on side C of the cavern. (Claudia Marcelloni, © CERN)

A welder works on the interconnection between two of the LHC's superconducting magnet systems, in the LHC tunnel. (Maximilien Brice, © CERN)

Transporting the ATLAS Magnet Toroid End-Cap A between building 180 to ATLAS point 1. (Claudia Marcelloni, © CERN)

View of the Computer Center during the installation of servers. (Maximilien Brice; Claudia Marcelloni, © CERN)

Aerial view of CERN and the surrounding region of Switzerland and France. Three rings are visible, the smaller (at lower right) shows the underground position of the Proton Synchrotron, the middle ring is the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) with a circumference of 7 km and the largest ring (27 km) is that of the former Large Electron and Positron collider (LEP) accelerator with part of Lake Geneva in the background. (© CERN)

View from the surface during lowering of the first ATLAS small wheel into the tunnel on side C of the cavern. (Claudia Marcelloni, © CERN)

View of the LHC cryo-magnet inside the tunnel. (Maximilien Brice, © CERN)

Assembly and installation of the ATLAS Hadronic endcap Liquid Argon Calorimeter. The ATLAS detector contains a series of ever-larger concentric cylinders around the central interaction point where the LHC's proton beams collide. (Roy Langstaff, © CERN)

View of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) in the cleaning room. The CMS is one of two general-purpose LHC experiments designed to explore the physics of the Terascale, the energy region where physicists believe they will find answers to the central questions at the heart of 21st-century particle physics. (Maximilien Brice, © CERN)

The Globe of Innovation in the morning. The wooden globe is a structure originally built for Switzerland's national exhibition, Expo'02, and is 40 meters wide, 27 meters tall. (Maximilien Brice; Claudia Marcelloni, © CERN)

Assembly and installation of the ATLAS Hadronic endcap Liquid Argon Calorimeter. The ATLAS detector contains a series of ever-larger concentric cylinders around the central interaction point where the LHC's proton beams collide. (Roy Langstaff, © CERN)

The ALICE Inner Tracking System during its transport in the experimental cavern and its insertion into the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment @ CERN) will study the physics of ultrahigh-energy proton-proton and lead-lead collisions and will explore conditions in the first instants of the universe, a few microseconds after the Big Bang. (Maximilien Brice, © CERN)

Google Chrome Privacy Settings and Concerns

Google is considered to be providing the most privacy on the Internet. Google chrome provides Incognito browsing or privacy browsing feature, which protects you from saving your browser history, cookie, etc. in the computer. This is really good.
Internet Explorer 8 beta 2 also offers private browsing feature. Currently I am using Zone Alarm ForceField in my laptop for privacy protection for bank transaction, etc.
At the same time, when opening a new chrome tab, it displays thumb images of the most visited websites, which you may not want to display, especially when your boss opens your browser! Google chrome also do not provide master password protection for saved passwords. These features/bugs do not really protect the privacy of the users.
Incognito or Stealth Browsing
The word Incognito refers to means “without being known or in disguise”. having one’s identity concealed, as under an assumed name, especially to avoid notice or formal attentions.
Incognito mode helps you browse in stealth mode. That means, the web pages you view won’t appear in your browser history or search history, and they won’t leave other traces, like cookies, on your computer after you close the incognito window.
Browsing in incognito mode keeps Google Chrome from storing information about the websites you’ve visited. The websites you visit may still have records of your visit. Any files saved to your computer will still remain on your computer.
This comes handy if you wish to visit your bank or any other financial website, etc.. from a friends laptop or from an Internet browsing center. You can use the incognito mode to make sure that your information is not tracked in the browser for later use.
To turn on the incognito mode, click on the Page menu and select New incognito window. A new window now opens with the incognito icon in the top left corner. You can continue browsing as normal in the other window. You can also right-click any link and select Open link in incognito window.
You can browse normally and in incognito mode at the same time by using separate windows.
Note that, any files you download or bookmarks you create, will be preserved. incognito mode does not protect you from websites that collect or share information about you, internet service providers or employers that track the pages you visit, malicious software that tracks your keystrokes in exchange for free smileys, surveillance by secret agents, etc..
Clear Most Visited Websites in New Tab
You might have noticed that, when you open a new tab in Chrome, the list of most visited websites appears. This list is controlled by the browsing history. If you need to delete just one item from the list, you cannot. Currently Chrome does not support removing just selected items from the list. You will need to clear the entire browsing history. Follow the Google help page to clear personal information.
Chrome is an Open Source, so if any of us have any concern on the privacy settings, any conspiracy, etc., they can inspect the code. To know more about how Google Chrome communicates with Google, read Matt’s blog.
No Master Password for Password Manager
You might remember that Firefox 3 has master password protection for all the saved password. Even if someone else get to your computer and browse using Firefox, you could sit back because your saved passwords are protected by master password.
The current beta release of Google Chrome, does not provide the master password protection. Chrome prompts to save password on successful login into a page. But when anyone can retrieve it by simply click Show Passwords button.
Click on the Tools -> Options -> Minor Tweaks tab ->Show saved passwords will show you the list of websites and usernames. Now you can click on the show password button on the window to see the password for the selected website. Unlike Firefox, the good thing is, Chrome displays only the password for the selected website rather than the whole list. I hope Google will have the master password in the next release

Google Pagerank Algorithm and How It Works

Page Rank is a topic much discussed by Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) experts. At the heart of PageRank is a mathematical formula that seems scary to look at but is actually fairly simple to understand.
Despite this many people seem to get it wrong! In particular “Chris Ridings of www.searchenginesystems.net” has written a paper entitled “PageRank Explained: Everything you've always wanted to know about PageRank”, pointed to by many people, that contains a fundamental mistake early on in the explanation! Unfortunately this means some of the recommendations in the paper are not quite accurate.
By showing code to correctly calculate real PageRank I hope to achieve several things in this response:
Clearly explain how PageRank is calculated.
Go through every example in Chris' paper, and add some more of my own, showing the correct PageRank for each diagram. By showing the code used to calculate each diagram I've opened myself up to peer review - mostly in an effort to make sure the examples are correct, but also because the code can help explain the PageRank calculations.
Describe some principles and observations on website design based on these correctly calculated examples.
Any good web designer should take the time to fully understand how PageRank really works - if you don't then your site's layout could be seriously hurting your Google listings!
[Note: I have nothing in particular against Chris. If I find any other papers on the subject I'll try to comment evenly]

How is PageRank Used?

PageRank is one of the methods Google uses to determine a page's relevance or importance. It is only one part of the story when it comes to the Google listing, but the other aspects are discussed elsewhere (and are ever changing) and PageRank is interesting enough to deserve a paper of its own.
PageRank is also displayed on the toolbar of your browser if you've installed the Google toolbar ( http://toolbar.google.com/ ). But the Toolbar PageRank only goes from 0 – 10 and seems to be something like a logarithmic scale:
Toolbar PageRank (log base 10)
Real PageRank

0 0 - 10
1 100 - 1,000
2 1,000 - 10,000
3 10,000 - 100,000
4 and so on...

We can't know the exact details of the scale because, as we'll see later, the maximum PR of all pages on the web changes every month when Google does its re-indexing! If we presume the scale is logarithmic (although there is only anecdotal evidence for this at the time of writing) then Google could simply give the highest actual PR page a toolbar PR of 10 and scale the rest appropriately.
Also the toolbar sometimes guesses! The toolbar often shows me a Toolbar PR for pages I've only just uploaded and cannot possibly be in the index yet!
What seems to be happening is that the toolbar looks at the URL of the page the browser is displaying and strips off everything down the last “/” (i.e. it goes to the “parent” page in URL terms). If Google has a Toolbar PR for that parent then it subtracts 1 and shows that as the Toolbar PR for this page. If there's no PR for the parent it goes to the parent's parent's page, but subtracting 2, and so on all the way up to the root of your site. If it can't find a Toolbar PR to display in this way, that is if it doesn't find a page with a real calculated PR, then the bar is greyed out.
Note that if the Toolbar is guessing in this way, the Actual PR of the page is 0 - though its PR will be calculated shortly after the Google spider first sees it.
PageRank says nothing about the content or size of a page, the language it's written in, or the text used in the anchor of a link!


I've started to use some technical terms and shorthand in this paper. Now's as good a time as any to define all the terms I'll use:
Shorthand for PageRank: the actual, real, page rank for each page as calculated by Google. As we'll see later this can range from 0.15 to billions.
Toolbar PR:
The PageRank displayed in the Google toolbar in your browser. This ranges from 0 to 10.
If page A links out to page B, then page B is said to have a “backlink” from page A.
That's enough of that, let's get back to the meat…
So what is PageRank?

In short PageRank is a “vote”, by all the other pages on the Web, about how important a page is. A link to a page counts as a vote of support. If there's no link there's no support (but it's an abstention from voting rather than a vote against the page).
Quoting from the original Google paper, PageRank is defined like this:
We assume page A has pages T1...Tn which point to it (i.e., are citations). The parameter d is a damping factor which can be set between 0 and 1. We usually set d to 0.85. There are more details about d in the next section. Also C(A) is defined as the number of links going out of page A. The PageRank of a page A is given as follows:
PR(A) = (1-d) + d (PR(T1)/C(T1) + ... + PR(Tn)/C(Tn))
Note that the PageRanks form a probability distribution over web pages, so the sum of all web pages' PageRanks will be one.
PageRank or PR(A) can be calculated using a simple iterative algorithm, and corresponds to the principal eigenvector of the normalized link matrix of the web.
but that's not too helpful so let's break it down into sections.
PR(Tn) - Each page has a notion of its own self-importance. That's “PR(T1)” for the first page in the web all the way up to “PR(Tn)” for the last page
C(Tn) - Each page spreads its vote out evenly amongst all of it's outgoing links. The count, or number, of outgoing links for page 1 is “C(T1)”, “C(Tn)” for page n, and so on for all pages.
PR(Tn)/C(Tn) - so if our page (page A) has a backlink from page “n” the share of the vote page A will get is “PR(Tn)/C(Tn)”
d(... - All these fractions of votes are added together but, to stop the other pages having too much influence, this total vote is “damped down” by multiplying it by 0.85 (the factor “d”)
(1 - d) - The (1 – d) bit at the beginning is a bit of probability math magic so the “ sum of all web pages' PageRanks will be one ”: it adds in the bit lost by the d(... . It also means that if a page has no links to it (no backlinks) even then it will still get a small PR of 0.15 (i.e. 1 – 0.85). (Aside: the Google paper says “the sum of all pages” but they mean the “the normalised sum” – otherwise known as “the average” to you and me.

How is PageRank Calculated?

This is where it gets tricky. The PR of each page depends on the PR of the pages pointing to it. But we won't know what PR those pages have until the pages pointing to them have their PR calculated and so on… And when you consider that page links can form circles it seems impossible to do this calculation!
But actually it's not that bad. Remember this bit of the Google paper:
PageRank or PR(A) can be calculated using a simple iterative algorithm, and corresponds to the principal eigenvector of the normalized link matrix of the web.
What that means to us is that we can just go ahead and calculate a page's PR without knowing the final value of the PR of the other pages . That seems strange but, basically, each time we run the calculation we're getting a closer estimate of the final value. So all we need to do is remember the each value we calculate and repeat the calculations lots of times until the numbers stop changing much.
Lets take the simplest example network: two pages, each pointing to the other:
Each page has one outgoing link (the outgoing count is 1, i.e. C(A) = 1 and C(B) = 1).
Guess 1
We don't know what their PR should be to begin with, so let's take a guess at 1.0 and do some calculations:
d = 0.85
PR(A) = (1 – d) + d(PR(B)/1)
PR(B) = (1 – d) + d(PR(A)/1)
PR(A) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 1 = 1
PR(B) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 1 = 1
Hmm, the numbers aren't changing at all! So it looks like we started out with a lucky guess!!!
Guess 2
No, that's too easy, maybe I got it wrong (and it wouldn't be the first time). Ok, let's start the guess at 0 instead and re-calculate:
PR(A) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 0 = 0.15

PR(B) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 0.15 = 0.2775
NB. we've already calculated a “next best guess” at PR(A) so we use it here
And again:
PR(A) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 0.2775 = 0.385875
PR(B) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 0.385875 = 0.47799375
And again
PR(A) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 0.47799375 = 0.5562946875
PR(B) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 0.5562946875 = 0.622850484375
and so on. The numbers just keep going up. But will the numbers stop increasing when they get to 1.0? What if a calculation over-shoots and goes above 1.0?
Guess 3
Well let's see. Let's start the guess at 40 each and do a few cycles:
PR(A) = 40 PR(B) = 40
First calculation
PR(A) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 40 = 34.25
PR(B) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 0.385875 = 29.1775
And again
PR(A) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 29.1775 = 24.950875
PR(B) = 0.15 + 0.85 * 24.950875 = 21.35824375
Yup, those numbers are heading down alright! It sure looks the numbers will get to 1.0 and stop
Here's the code used to calculate this example starting the guess at 0: Show the code Run the program
Principle: it doesn't matter where you start your guess, once the PageRank calculations have settled down, the “ normalized probability distribution ” (the average PageRank for all pages) will be 1.0

Getting the answer quicker

How many times do we need to repeat the calculation for big networks? That's a difficult question; for a network as large as the World Wide Web it can be many millions of iterations! The “damping factor” is quite subtle. If it's too high then it takes ages for the numbers to settle, if it's too low then you get repeated over-shoot, both above and below the average - the numbers just swing about the average like a pendulum and never settle down.
Also choosing the order of calculations can help. The answer will always come out the same no matter which order you choose, but some orders will get you there quicker than others.
I'm sure there's been several Master's Thesis on how to make this calculation as efficient as possible, but, in the examples below, I've used very simple code for clarity and roughly 20 to 40 iterations were needed!
Example 1
This is the first example Chris used in his paper.
I'm not going to repeat the calculations here, but you can see them by running the program (yes, if you click the link the program really is re-run to do the calculations for you)
Show the code Run the program

Site Maps

Site maps are useful in at least two ways:
If a user types in a bad URL most websites return a really unhelpful “404 – page not found” error page. This can be discouraging. Why not configure your server to return a page that shows an error has been made, but also gives the site map? This can help the user enormously
Linking to a site map on each page increases the number of internal links in the site, spreading the PR out and protecting you against your vote “donations”

Yup, those spam pages are pretty worthless but they sure add up!
Observation : it doesn't matter how many pages you have in your site, your average PR will always be 1.0 at best. But a hierarchical layout can strongly concentrate votes, and therefore the PR, into the home page!
This is a technique used by some disreputable sites (mostly adult content sites). But I can't advise this - if Google's robots decide you're doing this there's a good chance you'll be banned from Google! Disaster!
On the other hand there are at least two right ways to do this:
1. Be a Mega-site
Mega-sites, like http://news.bbc.co.uk/ have tens or hundreds of editors writing new content – i.e. new pages - all day long! Each one of those pages has rich, worthwile content of its own and a link back to its parent or the home page! That's why the Home page Toolbar PR of these sites is 9/10 and the rest of us just get pushed lower and lower by comparison…
Principle : Content Is King! There really is no substitute for lots of good content…
2. Give away something useful
http://www.phpbb.com/ has a Toolbar PR of 8/10 (at the time of writing) and it has no big money or marketing behind it! How can this be?
What the group has done is write a very useful bulletin board system that is becoming very popular on many websites. And at the bottom of every page, in every installation, is this HTML code:
Powered by phpBB
The administrator of each installation can remove that link, but most don't because they want to return the favour…
Can you imagine all those millions of pages giving a fraction of a vote to http://www.phpbb.com/ ? Wow!
Principle : Make it worth other people's while to use your content or tools. If your give-away is good enough other site admins will gladly give you a link back.
Principle : it's probably better to get lots (perhaps thousands) of links from sites with small PR than to spend any time or money desperately trying to get just the one link from a high PR page.

A Discussion on Averages

From the Brin and Page paper, the average Actual PR of all pages in the index is 1.0!
So if you add pages to a site you're building the total PR will go up by 1.0 for each page (but only if you link the pages together so the equation can work), but the average will remain the same.
If you want to concentrate the PR into one, or a few, pages then hierarchical linking will do that. If you want to average out the PR amongst the pages then "fully meshing" the site (lots of evenly distributed links) will do that - examples 5, 6, and 7 in my above. (NB. this is where Ridings' goes wrong, in his MiniRank model feedback loops will increase PR - indefinitely!)
Getting inbound links to your site is the only way to increase your site's average PR. How that PR is distributed amongst the pages on your site depends on the details of your internal linking and which of your pages are linked to.
If you give outbound links to other sites then your site's average PR will decrease (you're not keeping your vote "in house" as it were). Again the details of the decrease will depend on the details of the linking.
Given that the average of every page is 1.0 we can see that for every site that has an actual ranking in the millions (and there are some!) there must be lots and lots of sites who's Actual PR is below 1.0 (particularly because the absolute lowest Actual PR available is (1 - d)).
It may be that the Toolbar PR 1,2 correspond to Actual PR's lower than 1.0! E.g. the logbase for the Toolbar may be 10 but the Actual PR sequence could start quite low: 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1,000 etc...


PageRank is, in fact, very simple (apart from one scary looking formula). But when a simple calculation is applied hundreds (or billions) of times over the results can seem complicated.
PageRank is also only part of the story about what results get displayed high up in a Google listing. For example there's some evidence to suggest that Google is paying a lot of attention these days to the text in a link's anchor when deciding the relevance of a target page – perhaps more so than the page's PR…
PageRank is still part of the listings story though, so it's worth your while as a good designer to make sure you understand it correctly.


The original PageRank paper by Google's founders Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page - http://www-db.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html
Chris Ridings' “PageRank Explained” paper which, as of April 2002 http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.goodlookingcooking.co.uk/PageRank.pdf , contains one major mistake/misunderstanding - http://www.goodlookingcooking.co.uk/PageRank.pdf
Phil Craven's PageRank Calculator (fortunately his figures agree with mine)
A detailed explanation of how Chris incorrectly altered the PageRank equation with his MiniRank model
An excellent discussion on chad-jams (including “pregnant chad”) by Douglas W. Jones - http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/cards/chad.html - I don't think many people know the United States' voting system is this flawed!!!
Discussion forums on this topic:
MarketPositionTalk - PageRank updates
SearchEngineForums - PR documents and calculator
WebmasterWorld - PR document and calculator

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