Water-Proof Hanky | Physics Tricks

A great excuse to threaten to pour water over your audience – but with a surprise twist thanks to physics.


• large glass
• ashtray or similar
• water
• handkerchief


1. Push the centre of the handkerchief into the glass, so that the edges are hanging over the outside of the rim of the glass.

2. Pour water into the glass, through the loose handkerchief. Make sure that your audience can see the water easily passing through the handkerchief into the glass. Keep pouring the water until the glass is roughly half full.

3. Pull the corners of the handkerchief so that the material is taut over the top of the glass. Hold the glass and handkerchief so that the material stays tightly stretched over the opening. For younger audiences you may like to say some 'magic words' that make the hanky water proof.

4. Place the ashtray on the top of the glass and tip it all upside down, being careful to keep the handkerchief pulled tight.

5. Choose a likely suspect from your audience to threaten with a drenching! Hold the upside-down glass and ashtray above their head, making sure that the glass is vertical and the handkerchief is tight. Remove the ashtray and voila! – nothing happens! The water stays inside the glass.

How does it work?

This demonstration is based on surface tension and air pressure. When the handkerchief is loose, the water can pour through the gaps in the fabric. However, when the handkerchief is pulled tight, the water molecules can form a single surface or membrane across the handkerchief due to a property called surface tension. The air surrounding us is exerting a force in all directions - air pressure. When the membrane is formed on the surface of the handkerchief, it provides a uniform surface for the air pressure to act upon. The force of the surrounding air acting upon this membrane is sufficient to overcome gravity, and so the water stays in the glass.

Tips for Success

Don't try to substitute a paper tissue for the handkerchief as it won't work! If the glass isn't held vertically, some water may dribble out where the membrane attaches to the edge of the glass.

Serving Suggestions

This trick will work in almost any environment and with any age group.

Did You Know?

Galileo was among the earliest to demonstrate the existence of surface tension on water by showing that an iron needle can be floated lengthways on water, but not on it’s point.

Alka-Seltzer Rocket | Physics Tricks

An oldie but a goodie – guaranteed to impress audiences of all ages. Turn simple familiar household ingredients into an awesome rocket!


• empty film cannister
• Alka-Seltzer tablet
• water


1. Place the Alka-Seltzer tablet in the film cannister.
2. Add ~1cm of water.
3. Fit the lid on the cannister, making sure the seal is tight.
4. Turn the cannister upside-down and place it on a flat surface. Stand back!

How does it work?

When water is added to the Alka-Seltzer tablet, bubbles of carbon dioxide gas are given off. When the lid is fitted tightly to the cannister this gas is contained within an enclosed space. As more gas is given off the pressure inside the cannister rises until there is enough force to overcome the seal of the lid. The built up pressure exerts enough force to shoot the cannister into the air, forming the rocket.

Tips for Success

Make sure the film cannister lid is tightly fitting or you will only get a disappointing 'fizz'. You should also clean the cannister lip and lid between demonstrations so that no pieces of Alka-Seltzer get stuck between them, ruining the seal.

Serving Suggestions

This is a good demonstration for attracting people from far away as they can see and hear the rocket in action. It can be fairly messy so is either most suited to outside environments OR locations that are easily cleaned! It works with audiences of all ages.

Did You Know?

The Chinese began building chemically powered rockets as long ago as the 1150’s. One of the great pioneers of modern rocketry, N. I. Kibaltchich was executed in 1881 after manufacturing the bomb that was used to assassinate Tsar Alexander II.

Tips and Tricks for students with disabilities

The information is for students with disabilities. The contents include software recommendations, JAWs instruction, Blackboard tips and disability resources.

Recommended Applications

Zoomtext (Magnifier) and Read & Write Gold (Screen reader)
The EKU learning community has access to two, specialized pieces of assistive technology; Zoomtext (for the visually impaired), and Read&Write Gold (for LD, ADHD and other cognitive impaired individuals) in the Richmond campus student computer labs in the SSB and the Library Lab ( behind Java City). All individuals are welcome to learn how to use this special software. If interested in a demo, call the Disabilities Office to set up an appointment with a technology specialist.
Accessibility of various software programs
Where to find the new commands in Office 2007
Online Search Engine
‘Google Accessible Web Search for the Visually Impaired’ returns a list of websites with priority given to the most accessible.
Best online blogger and blog aggregator for users with low vision or blind users.
Juice podcast aggregator for .mp3 and similar audio files
Best podcast aggregator for users with low vision or blind users.
Adobe Reader for PDFs
Flash and Shockwave
Microsoft Readers for PowerPoint, Word, Excel, etc
Quicktime for .mov files
Real Player for audio and video
Windows Media Player for audio or video

Adobe Acrobat 8

Use the Optical Character Recognition command to change a scanned document (image) into actual text.
Document > OCR Text Recognition > Recognize text using OCR
Shortcut = Alt + DCR
Magnifies one small portion of the page.
Tools > Select & Zoom > Loupe Tool
Shortcut = Alt + T Z L
Magnifies the page view in the browser window.
View > Zoom > Zoom to
Shortcut = Alt + V Z, Enter, arrow keys to choose magnification
Read Out Loud
Read a document out loud if the document has true text, or can be changed to a document with text using OCR
View > Read Out Loud
Shortcut = Shift + Control + V

MS Operating System Tips

Toggle to high contrast theme in Windows with left alt + left shift + print screen, enter, or alt-s for settings, alt-s, alt-y, and arrow down for contrast scheme selections.
Users can also start Accessibility programs before logging on to the computer on by pressing the Windows logo key+ U at the logon screen.
Once logged in, the Windows logo key will open the Start Menu. Use arrow keys and the tab key to navigate through the options.
Windows includes the following programs to enhance accessibility:
Magnifier enlarges a portion of the screen for easier viewing.
Narrator uses text-to-speech technology to read the contents of the screen aloud. This is useful for people who are blind or are vision impaired.
On-Screen Keyboard provides users with limited mobility the ability to type on-screen using a pointing device.
All of these tools can be activated by using the Utility Manager. (Windows logo key + U). Utility Manager enables users to check an Accessibility program's status and start or stop an Accessibility program. Users with administrator-level access can designate to have the program start when Utility Manager starts.
Suggestions for Deaf or hard-of-hearing users
Turn on ShowSounds or SoundSentry for visual information in place of audio.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, Sound tab
Suggestions for blind or low vision users
Turn on high contrast. (left alt + left shift + print screen, enter)
Turn on Togglekeys, which are sounds for caps, num, or scroll locks. (Press the NUM lock for five seconds)
Change the screen resolution
Increase the size of objects and text on your screen.
Use the Magnifier to zoom into any portion of your interface. (control key + esc, press R, type magnify, and then enter)
Use the Narrator to read window screens. (control key + esc, press R, type narrator, and then enter)
Suggestions for mobility impaired users
MouseKeys - for people who have difficulty using a mouse. MouseKeys allows you to use the numeric keypad to control the mouse pointer.
Press left alt + left shift + NUM Lock
Serial Keys - for people who have difficulty using the computer's standard keyboard or mouse. Serial Keys provides support so that alternative input devices, such as single switch or puff and sip devices, can be plugged into the computer's serial port.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, General tab
FilterKeys - a keyboard feature that instructs the keyboard to ignore brief or repeated keystrokes. Using FilterKeys, you can also slow the rate at which a key repeats when you hold it down.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, Keyboard tab
Shortcut = Hold down right shift key for eight seconds to turn on.
StickyKeys - designed for people who have difficulty holding down two or more keys simultaneously. When a shortcut requires a key combination, such as CTRL+P, StickyKeys will enable you to press a modifier key (CTRL, ALT, or SHIFT), or the Windows logo key, and have it remain active until another key is pressed.
Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Options, Keyboard tab
Shortcut = Turn on by pressing the shift key five times.

13 Quick Tips To Search Google Like An Expert

Note: many of these tips work on all search engines, but if they don’t you’ll have to go back to Google.

1. Explicit Phrase: Let’s say you are looking for content about internet marketing. Instead of just typing internet marketing into the Google search box, you will likely be better off searching explicitly for the phrase. To do this, simply enclose the search phrase within double quotes. Example: “internet marketing”

2. Exclude Words: Let’s say you want to search for content about internet marketing, but you want to exclude any results that contain the term advertising. To do this, simply use the “-“ sign in front of the word you want to exclude. Example Search: internet marketing –advertising

3. Site Specific Search: Often, you want to search a specific website for content that matches a certain phrase. Even if the site doesn’t support a built-in search feature, you can use Google to search the site for your term. Simply use the “site:somesite.com” modifier. Example: “internet marketing” site:www.smallbusinesshub.com

4. Similar Words and Synonyms: Let’s say you are want to include a word in your search, but want to include results that contain similar words or synonyms. To do this, use the “~” in front of the word. Example: “internet marketing” ~professional

5. Specific Document Types: If you’re looking to find results that are of a specific type, you can use the modifier “filetype:”. For example, you might want to find only PowerPoint presentations related to internet marketing. Example: “internet marketing” filetype:ppt

6. This OR That: By default, when you do a search, Google will include all the terms specified in the search. If you are looking for any one of one or more terms to match, then you can use the OR operator. (Note: The OR has to be capitalized). Example: internet marketing OR advertising

7. Phone Listing: Let’s say someone calls you on your mobile number and you don’t know how it is. If all you have is a phone number, you can look it up on Google using the phonebook feature. Example: phonebook:617-555-1212

8. Area Code Lookup: If all you need to do is to look-up the area code for a phone number, just enter the 3-digit area code and Google will tell you where it’s from. Example: 617

9. Addresses : Type in any address into Google, including the city and state and Google will provide a map of the area, as well as the ability to get directions to the location. Example: 880 Hermann Rd, North Brunswick, NJ

10 Numeric Ranges: This is a rarely used, but highly useful tip. Let’s say you want to find results that contain any of a range of numbers. You can do this by using the X..Y modifier (in case this is hard to read, what’s between the X and Y are two periods. This type of search is useful for years (as shown below), prices or anywhere where you want to provide a series of numbers. Example: president 1940..1950

11. Stock (Ticker Symbol): Just enter a valid ticker symbol as your search term and Google will give you the current financials and a quick thumb-nail chart for the stock. Example: GOOG

12. Calculator: The next time you need to do a quick calculation, instead of bringing up the Calculator applet, you can just type your expression in to Google. Example: 48512 * 1.02

13. Word Definitions: If you need to quickly look up the definition of a word or phrase, simply use the “define:” command. Example: define:plethora

7 proven methods to trick Google

These are our suggested methods to get to the top of Google, Altavista and other Search Engines:

1. Optimize your websites
2. The Shotgun Approach: use a lot of keywords
3. Use Google optimized pages in addition to your regular website
4. Make gateway pages that do not look like gateway pages
5. Use gateway domains to push back your competence
6. Use Viral Marketing to build PageRank and obtain thousands of incoming links
7. Manually submit your important pages to the best indexes, for fast, valuable, free incoming links

1. Optimize your websites for maximal Search Engine traffic

Site promotion is a wide field with many different tools: online advertising, direct mail, SE (search engine) optimizing and positioning, link-building and several others. All those methods are different. Some are faster and short-lived, like online advertising or mailing. And some are slower but long-lasting, such as search engine positioning.

Over 95% of Web users find what they are looking for by visiting search engines. Even a few good positions on even one or two important keywords or phrases can drive thousands or hundreds of thousands of quality visitor traffic to a Web site per day.

Research has shown that people hardly ever go past the top 30 search results for any one search. The top 10 results receive 78% more traffic than those in position 11 to 30 do. The top 30 results get over 90% of the search traffic. The search engines are mostly over-flowed. They have too many pages in their indices and they do not do a very good job of giving the users what they are looking for. Often, a good Web site may be ranked low by a search engine, and a very bad Web site in the same subject area ranked high! That is why you need a Search Engine Optimizer (SEO), either a human expert or a software package. Most companies that position websites in the search engines act by optimizing the existing website. Look under "search engine optimization", or "SEO" under Google and you will find many companies. There are some usually quite expensive and their methods are full of technicalities. You definitely need to know some facts before dealing with any of them.

The most important factor for website positioning is that Google ranks pages according to relevance and PageRank. Relevance is related to keyword density, calculated as the ratio between keyword number and total word number in a page and domain. Optimal keyword density is probably between 3 and 5%. PageRank is a measure of link popularity as read in Google navigation bar. Link popularity is the number of popular pages in the whole WWW that link to a certain page.

Notice that optimizing the website has its limits. There are so many pages that can be optimized for so many keywords. Also, since dynamic pages are difficult to index, Google does not like Javascript code, .asp, .php or other modern page types. Thus, optimization is an enemy of good design.

2. The Shotgun Approach: Use the maximal amount of keywords that can possibly describe your site.

There are many ways to arrive to any website thru the SEs. If your server logs the requests, you will be surprised to know the strange questions people ask. Instead of searching for "flowers", they write "best way to cheer up girls", or "standard woman gift", or "cheap solution for a conflict". If you sell flowers, use all of those keywords for better results. Besides, positioning your flower web shop in front of 45 million competitors is harder than competing with only 300,000.

Why not to use a shotgun instead of a rifle? We do not concentrate our effort in the top, highly competitive keywords. Every keyword or keyword phrase we can think of, we use. We have enough disk space for them all. Our imagination is wild. Hosting is cheap enough. We then use software to make enough content, SE optimized content pages that accommodate our army of keywords.
Our "Shotgun" approach involves selecting hundreds of relevant keywords for each promoted website.

There are several keyword research methods. Some suggestions:

• use your keyword in other languages
• use synonyms and plurals
• use the keywords more frequently demanded by the users (Overture and Google have that information)
• use the brand name of your competitor (not completely legal, but it works)
• copy the keywords from the pages that are well ranked in SEs. Our GGG software has an automated method of extracting them ("Keyword Thief").
• purchase frequent keyword lists
• when the site is alive and receives visits, a good statistics package can reveal the keywords that people use to find it on the search engines. It is good to reinforce their presence in the site.
• use many keyword phrases, not just keywords.
• add the word "free" to your keywords. It makes miracles.

Few people will use the same logic as you, the keyword selector. Only a "shotgun" campaign will cover most possibilities.

Notice that not all keywords have similar relevance. We make keyword families, with 1st and 2nd level keywords, thematically arranged. GGG can manage that.

3. Use Google-optimized pages in addition to your regular website

Most websites do not have enough pages to optimize for any possible keyword. Thus, many keywords must be left out. The alternative is to create new pages to accommodate the extra keywords.

According to most experts, pages that rank well in Google share these features:
• 3% to 5% keyword density in the whole page, 25% in the Title.
• use of keywords in the domain name, in the title, in the H1 and H2 headings, in the page filenames, in the graphics filenames, in the metatags, in the image ALT tags, in the link anchor text
• use of keywords in the first words of a page
• use of keywords inside theme-related content, not randomly inside unrelated text
• use of keywords related to categories in the DMOZ index (dmoz.org)
• use many cross-linked pages optimized for related keywords

There is very little chance that your current website follows all these rules. Most likely you need special, doorway pages, in order to describe your website AND have high relevance for each of your keywords. Each page is optimized for a single keyword, pointing to the main page in the target website.

Doorway pages, which are designed for top SE placement, are not a novelty. The fact that they are also called gateway pages, pointer pages, anchor pages, entry pages, landing, bridge, crawler, jump or supplemental pages reveals their age and popularity...

Several systems exist for automatically generating these Gateways. However, they are not easily found while searching: either SEs easily spot them and exclude them from their listings, or they lack the necessary elements for being effective.

To avoid repetitive pages we start obtaining enough content, either taking it from the main website or by making standard changes in the existing text. We then build a database of as many keyword phrases as we can find, content text, file names and other data. The last step is page generation, following the accepted rules for good positioning. We make and publish at least one page per keyword.

4. Make gateway pages that do not look like gateway pages

When webmasters discovered the rules of Google positioning, they started making pages following those rules. Hundreds, thousands, even millions of them. The search results were soon overcrowded by those gateway pages, and Google took action: they acted against abusive gateway pages, forbidding them. That is why gateway pages are a bad word among mainstream website promoters.

Some webmasters copied hundreds of times the keyword inside a page, making the text the same color as the background, to avoid annoying the reader. This simple trick was rapidly detected and forbidden by Google.

In the same vein, many webmasters produced pages with a thousand links to the target page, in order to build internal link popularity or PageRank. For that reason, Google now does not like pages with more than 100 links.

Abusive gateway pages are currently defined as "many pages that have little useful information, have repetitive keyword-stuffed text, are pointing to the same target page, are mostly orphan (no incoming links), reside mostly in the same directory".

Ok, someone will claim: "You can not make hand-made pages by software. It is like the antique-maker paradox: either they are antiques, or they are made...". That is true. While choosing a gateway generator tool, look for one that does not leave any trace in its pages. Make them look unique, information rich, useful and nice looking.

Sites without doorway pages can be "politically correct", but have no presence in the SEs.

Only a few of the gateway generators in the market are prepared to bring traffic from Google, without triggering any alarm.

GGG (www.GatewayGenerator.com) allows the user to include a lot of content and relevant keywords, to spread pages across several domains or subdomains, to link to different target pages, and not to exceed a reasonable page number limit. This way, the pages can be called informational and there is no SE abuse.

GGG uses 2 levels of keywords. The 2nd level keywords or subkeywords are "nested" in the 1st level keywords, building sub-themes within the main theme. This is simple math. If you have a limit of 100 links per page, and you want more than 100 pages, they cannot be completely interlinked. With 2 levels of keywords you can have 10,000 total keywords: 100 main keywords, with 100 subkeywords each.

We call "indirectly interlinked" to pages that are interlinked with a minimal amount of links. Thus, from any page to another you might need more than one link. This results in a low total link count, which does not abuse the SE. Webmasters that use many keywords and many pages with "direct interlinking" risk being banned from Google. Another reason to avoid many links, is the fact that SE allocate a limited time, bandwidth and number of links to each site, depending on PageRank. If you offer too many links to the SE spider, some of them are not followed. Indirect interlinking is another unique feature of GGG.

"Random" pages are an important, additional component in this strategy. We must admit that nobody knows how to make perfect top-ranking web pages, except for the SE algorithm designers themselves. Thus, it is good to make lots of pages with randomly chosen parameters: keyword selection, density and order, page length, image selection, metatag wording and others. Upload them all, submit them to the SEs by means of a hallway or sitemap page, and wait until the next Google dance. Quantity might beat quality.

It usually works quite well. But there is one problem remaining: the pages that get to the top ranking are usually ugly and only indirectly point to the target website. They are not keyword-stuffed, but they still have more keywords and links than a normal page, and they would not resist an abuse denounce and a review by a human Google reviewer. The solution is simple: after we promptly identify the pages that came to the top, we make a little retouching: colors, logo, structure, content. We leave title, metatags and a few other critical items intact: colors, logo, structure, content. Like in most favoured positions in life, it seems that staying in the SE top is easier than arriving there...

5. Use gateway domains to push back your competence

In the same way that gateway pages capture visits from Google, gateway domains get always well positioned. If you look under any popular keyword, you will see those keywords in the domain name. Also, the domain names with pure keywords in them are scarce and valuable. For that reason we registered GatewayGenerator.com and DoorwayGenerator.com.ar. The additional advantage of gateway domains is the fact that each domain is allowed only 2 entries in SE´s result pages (SERP). Thus, even if you have a SE saturation (number of pages of a given domain that are indexed in the SE) of say 100, you will have only 2 of them in the results.

More domains let you have more places in the first SERPs, pushing your competence back in the results.

GGG has a unique feature that lets you host gateway pages across as many domains as you have. They are all interlinked and point to the target site. This also helps avoid the abuse label.

6. Use Viral Marketing to build PageRank and obtain thousands of incoming links

Viral marketing is a powerful technique that allows fast, efficient dispersal of an idea around the marketplace.

When people use the Freeware version of GGG, discrete links to our sites are included in the generated pages. This helps our sales because of direct clicks, and also improves our ranking in Google, Altavista and other search engines.You can use a branded Freeware GGG to include your own brand and link in the pages generated by your customers or site visitors.

For $99 we will compile a Freeware version for you to offer to your visitors or clients. This version will create Gateway pages with a link to your promoted site. Link popularity is a key factor in attaining high search engine ranking. This way, all the final users will indirectly generate link popularity for your sites. It will be their pages, their servers, they page registration and other promotion efforts, all working for you day and night. And they will be grateful to you because of the superb free tool you gave them...

If you also want to collect a commission from every sale that we make with your branded version of GGG, you just need to sign up in the Affiliate Program:
Earn 30% commissions selling GGG in your website

This affiliate program is free to join, and it is open to every webmaster, even if they did not purchase any product from us.

You can even use this e-book, with links to your website, as a Viral Marketing tool. As you probably know, people like ebooks. The content/advertising rate is higher than in regular pages. They spread easily thru its own channels. Ask for a quote.

7. Manually submit your important pages to the best indexes

To be well ranked in Google, Altavista and other indexes that use a similar ranking algorithm you need many good incoming links. The fastest and cheaper way to get them is to submit to other indexes.

Good indexes only accept manual submissions. Only human operators can understand the rules of each index and add quality content. Of course, only humans are receptive to advertising, the force behind most indexes. For that reason, many sites ask for proof of humanity (like Altavista´s time-consuming quiz).

Many softwares perform automatic SE submission, but most of the sites that accept free automatic submissions are worthless. None of them has PageRank over 2. Their only purpose is to collect your email to spam you forever.

Being listed in other indexes helps your Google ranking, unless those sites are not indexed or they are labeled as "link farms" (PageRank 0). Considering the effort that requires to get a listing in any site, reserve your time for those with a decent (5+) PageRank.

Some good indexes demand a reciprocal link or banner, before listing you. This can be worth the effort, but it also time-consuming and annoying.

Finally, some very good indexes like Yahoo demand significant payment (U$D300).

There are thousands of good indexes in the web, but not all of them match your needs. For instance, some require link exchange, some are restricted to English sites and some are subject or geographically limited. To help list the indexes that are useful to submit any given site, we created a matching system with over 350 PageRank 5+ indexes. It is located at www.FoundFirst.com . There is a free service to try the system, and a paid one.

Handy calculations

This is an excellent web site that provides handy calculations for almost all scientific and engineering disciplines.

Petroleum Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Civil Engineering
Basic cashflow analysis
Project selection/Capital allocation by Ranking method
Measurement Units
Units Conversion Calculators
Units Conversion factors
Surge & Swab pressures
Bit Hydraulics Optimization
Cuttings Slip Velocity
Equivalent Circulation Density Of Mud
Basic solids analysis
Drilling rate d-Exponent
Directional survey
Well Schematic I - Single vertical completion
Well Schematic II - Dual vertical completion
Well Schematic III - Horizontal single completion
Casing Data Browser
Reservoir I
Material Balance Equation I: SolutionGas-GasCap Drive
Material Balance Equation II: SolutionGas with GasCap Withdrawal/Injection
Pressure Buildup Analysis - Horner Plot (Oilwell)
Inflow Performance Relationships For solution-gas drive Vertical wells
Inflow Performance Relationships For solution-gas drive Slanted wells
Inflow Performance Relationships For solution-gas drive Horizontal wells
Horizontal well performance (oil)
Water coning in a vertical well
Combined gas & water coning in a vertical well
Water breakthrough time in a vertical well
Reservoir II - Gas
Original Gas In Place: Volumetric reservoir - p/z method
Original Gas In Place: Abnormally Pressured gas reservoir
Coalbed Methane: Original Gas In Place by P/Z* method
Coalbed Methane: Reservoir performance prediction
Gaswell deliverability - Backpressure AOF test
Horizontal well performance (gas)
Gas Properties - I: Z, ì, Bg and Sg for a given Composition
Gas Properties - II: Z, ì, Bg for a given Specific gravity
Real gas pseudo-pressure
Gas coning in a vertical well
Decline Curve Analysis
Flow through chokes (1-phase)
Flow through chokes (2-phase)
Gaswell flow in Vertical Tubing
Gas flow in Horizontal Pipeline
Gas flow in Inclined Pipeline
API Gravity Correction to 60°F
Gas well load-up: Critical Rate
Tubing Data Browser
Skin Factors In Perforated Vertical Wells
Skin Factors In Perforated Horizontal Wells
Productivity Ratio Of Perforated Horizontal Wells
Conventional well log analysis I
Conventional well log analysis II
Basic cashflow analysis
Comprehensive cashflow analysis (oilfield)
Comprehensive cashflow analysis (gasfield)
'Optimum' number of Oilfield development wells
Project selection/Capital allocation by Ranking method
Units Conversion Calculators
Units Conversion factors
World Oil & Gas Production & Reserves - Country by country Data
Mechanical Engineering Calculators
Civil Engineering Calculators
Chemical Engineering Calculators
Physical Properties
Physical properties of Water
Liquid-phase Diffusion coefficients
Gas Z-factor, Viscosity & Specific Gravity for a given Composition
Gas Z-factor & Viscosity for a given Specific gravity
API gravity Correction To 60°F
Fluid Flow
Reynolds Number and Friction Factors
Vapor-Liquid 2-Phase Vertical downflow
Flow Through Packed Bed
Liquid Pipe flow: Pressure Drop calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Length calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Flow Rate calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Diameter calculation
Gas flow in Horizontal Pipeline
Gas flow in Inclined Pipeline
Heat Transfer
Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger: Corrected LMTD
Air-cooled Heat Exchanger Design
Equipment Sizing
Sizing Of Liquid-Vapor Separators
Partial Volumes Of Tanks
Orifice Sizing for fluid flow
Gas Compressor performance
Mass Transfer
Multicomponent Equilibrium Flash Calculations
Packed-Tower Sizing
Basic cashflow analysis
Project selection/Capital allocation by Ranking method
Measurement Units
Units Conversion Calculators
Units Conversion factors
Other Calculators
Petroleum Engineering Calculators
Chemistry Calculators
Mechanical Engineering Calculators
Civil Engineering Calculators
Machine Mechanics
Rolling Wheel
Motion of Crank-Slider Mechanism
Buckling of Helical Spring
Bolt & Nut Bolted Joint: Stiffnesses of components
Cap Screw Bolted Joint: Stiffnesses of components
Bolted Joint: Static and Dynamic loading
Butt Weld under axial and transverse loading
Fillet Weld under Torsional loading
Fillet Weld under Bending loading
Material Stresses
Pressure loading: Thin-walled vessels (Sphere & Cylinder)
Pressure loading: Thick-walled Cylinder
Stresses due to Interference (press or shrink) fit
Contact stresses: Sphere on a sphere
Contact stresses: Sphere on a Flat surface
Contact stresses: Cylinder on a cylinder
Contact stresses: Cylinder on a Flat surface
Rotational loading: Thin disk
2D Stresses & Mohr's Circle
3D Stresses & Mohr's Circles
Static Failure analysis: Ductile material
Static Failure analysis: Brittle material
Buckling of Column with Rectangular cross-section
Buckling of Column with Circular cross-section
Fatigue & dynamic Failure analysis
Stress Concentration factors: Two U-Notches in a Rectangular member
Stress Concentration factors: Circular Hole in a Rectangular member
Stress Concentration factors: U-Notch in a Circular shaft
Stress Concentration factors: Square Shoulder with Fillet in a Circular shaft
Stress Concentration factors: Radial Hole in hollow or solid Circular shaft
Fluid Flow
Reynolds Number and Friction Factors
Liquid Pipe flow: Pressure Drop calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Length calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Flow Rate calculation
Liquid Pipe flow: Pipe Diameter calculation
Gas Z-factor, Viscosity & Specific Gravity for a given Composition
Gas Z-factor & Viscosity for a given Specific gravity
Gas flow in Horizontal Pipeline
Gas flow in Inclined Pipeline
Forces on a pipe bend
Heat Transfer

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